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The figs were retired from the sauce pan long before the meat was done and they were served around the ham as a garnish.] Compare with this Latin text, English translation and modern instructions: "Pernam, ubi eam cum caricis plurimis elixa veris et tribus lauri foliis, detracta cute tessellatim indicis et melle complebis.
Deinde farinam oleo subactam contexes et ei corium reddis et cum farina cocta fuerit, eximas furno ut est et inferes." Boil the ham with a large number of dried figs and 3 bay leaves. Preheat the oven to 200 C/400 F/Gas 6, and bake for 30 minutes until the crust is golden. 268) "Pastry dough: Roman pastry dough was made with lard or olive oil rather than butter. Spelt flour needs rather less fat than wheat flour.
Pie can be closed, open, small, large, savory or sweet.
The basic concept of pies and tarts has changed little throughout the ages.
The challenging part of researching these early pies is most of us rely on translators of original texts.
These can vary according to scholarly proficiency and educated interpretation.
The first pies were very simple and generally of the savory (meat and cheese) kind.
Flaky pastry fruit-filled turnovers appeared in the early 19th century.
Beyond mere preference, howevers, there was a practical reason for making pies, especially in the harsh and primitive conditions endured by the first colonists.Modern pie, as we Americans know it today, descends from Medieval European ingredients (fat=suet, lard, butter) and technology (pie plates, freestanding pies, tiny tarts)."The idea of enclosing meat inside a sort of pastry made from flour and oil originated in ancient Rome, but it was the northern European use of lard and butter to make a pastry shell that could be rolled out and moulded that led to the advent of true pie." ---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press: Oxford] 2002 (p.A piecrust used less flour than bread and did not require anything as complicated as a brick oven for baking.More important, though, was how pies could stretch even the most meager provisions into sustaining a few more hungry mouths...