Subdivisions of England (as of 2010) that have a principal local authority: two-tier non-metropolitan counties and their non-metropolitan districts; metropolitan boroughs; unitary authorities; London boroughs; and the sui generis City of London and Isles of Scilly.
The subdivisions of England constitute a hierarchy of administrative divisions and non-administrative ceremonial areas.
The London borough councils and the City of London Corporation provide the majority of services, for example they are education authorities and co-ordinate waste management, whereas the Greater London Authority is responsible for the key strategic services of public transport, the police, economic development and emergency planning.
Ceremonial counties are often different from the metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties used for local government as they include the areas covered by unitary authorities.
They are taken into consideration when drawing up Parliamentary constituency boundaries.
Berkshire is an anomaly in this arrangement whereby its districts became unitary authorities, but the non-metropolitan county was not formally abolished.
For ceremonial purposes, unitary authorities are considered to be part of the county to which they formerly belonged.